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This is the main configuration file to configure the daemon itself. It defines base settings like the default sample rates used by modules, resampling methods, realtime scheduling and various other settings related to the server process. These can not be changed at runtime without restarting the PulseAudio daemon. The defaults are sensible for most users, see the pulse-daemon.conf(5) man page for additional information. Boolean options accepts any of these: true, yes, on and 1 as well as false, no, off and 0.


This file is a startup script and is used to configure modules. It is actually parsed and read after the daemon has finished initializing and additional commands can be sent at runtime using pactl(1) or pacmd(1). The startup script can also be provided on the command line by starting PulseAudio in a terminal using pulseaudio -nC. This will make the daemon load the CLI module and will accept the configuration directly from the command line, and output resulting information or error messages on the same terminal. This can be useful when debugging the daemon or just to test various modules before setting them permanently on disk. The manual page is quite self-explanatory, consult pulse-cli-syntax(5) for the details of the syntax.

If the only profile you seem to have is "HiFi", this means that you are using ALSA Use Case Manager profiles instead of pulseaudio profiles. See PulseAudio/Examples#Disabling UCM/"HiFi" for information on how to get back to using pulseaudio profiles.

Since PulseAudio runs as a daemon as the current user, clients needs to know where to find the daemon socket to connect to it as well as a shared random cookie file clients use to authenticate with it. By default, clients should be able to locate the daemon without problem using environment variables, X11 root window properties and finally by trying the default location (unix:/run/user/$ID/pulse/native). However, if you have clients that needs to access PulseAudio outside of your X11 session like mpd running as a different user, you will need to tell it how to connect to your PulseAudio instance. See PulseAudio/Examples#Allowing multiple users to share a PulseAudio daemon for a complete example. An authentication cookie containing random bytes is enabled by default to ensure audio does not leak from one user to another on a multi-user system. If you already control who can access the server using user/group permissions, you can disable the cookie by passing auth-cookie-enabled=0 to module-native-protocol-unix.

These two variables are the important ones in order for libpulse clients to locate PulseAudio if you moved its socket to somewhere else. See pulseaudio(1) for more details and other useful environment variables clients will read.

PulseAudio also uses window properties on the root window of the X11 server to help find the daemon. Since environment variables cannot be modified after child processes are started, X11 properties are more flexible because they are more easily changed because they are globally shared. As long as applications receive a DISPLAY= environment variable, it can read the most up-to-date values. X11 properties can be queried using xprop -root, or with pax11publish -d to read pulse-specific properties. pax11publish can also be used to update the properties from environment variables (pax11publish -e, or pax11publish -r to remove them entirely). If possible, it is recommended to let PulseAudio do it by itself using the module-x11-publish module or the start-pulseaudio-x11 command. The following table is there only for completeness, you should not ever need to manually set these variables by hand.

If you have applications that do not support PulseAudio explicitly but rely on ALSA, these applications will try to access the sound card directly via ALSA and will therefore bypass PulseAudio. PulseAudio will thus not have access to the sound card any more. As a result, all applications relying on PulseAudio will not be working any more, leading to this issue. To prevent this, you will need to install the pulseaudio-alsa package. It contains the necessary /etc/alsa/conf.d/99-pulseaudio-default.conf for configuring ALSA to use PulseAudio. Also make sure that /.asoundrc does not exist, as it would override the /etc/asound.conf file.

Arch does not load the PulseAudio echo-cancellation module by default, therefore, we have to add it in /etc/pulse/ First you can test if the module is present with pacmd and entering list-modules. If you cannot find a line showing name: you have to create:

Here is a two examples where the first one is for ALSA and the other one is for pulseaudio. You can run multiple instances of it. Use the -w option to choose which of the control buttons to bind to the mouse wheel.

One useful tidbit from that page is that load-module module-device-manager should be loaded. This usually happens automatically at login through the script /usr/bin/start-pulseaudio-x11; if you find that the module is not loaded automatically you can consider adding it manually to a configuration file in /etc/pulse/ See #Switch on connect for possible conflicts with the module-switch-on-connect.

MPlayer natively supports PulseAudio output with the -ao pulse option. It can also be configured to default to PulseAudio output, in /.mplayer/config for per-user, or /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf for system-wide:

It is a requirement that both the client and server share the same cookie. Ensure that the clients and server share the same cookie file found under /.config/pulse/cookie. It does not matter whose cookie file you use (the server or a client's), just that the server and client(s) share the same one.

If it is undesirable to copy the cookie file from clients, anonymous clients can access the server by passing auth-anonymous to module-native-protocol-tcp on the server (again in /etc/pulse/

Physically, the new Pentax DA* 16-50mm f/2.8 ED PLM AW zoom lens maintains a fairly similar size and cosmetic design, though it is a bit larger and heavier than the earlier 2007 version. The new model keeps the same approximate diameter of 84mm (3.3in.) and still uses 77mm-sized screw-on filters, but the length has increased to around 117mm (4.6in.) compared the earlier model's 98.5mm (3.9in.) length. The weight has also bumped up a bit to a heftier 721g (1.57lbs.; without lens hood), compared to 565g (1.25lbs.) in the original model.

When it comes to autofocus, this is another key area of improvement for the 16-50mm f/2.8 PLM lens compared to the original model. As the naming suggests, the new lens no longer uses the supersonic direct-drive motor (SDM) but rather, utilizes a newer, quieter "PLM" motor, or pulse motor, to drive the focusing mechanism. Similar to Nikon's pulse-motor-based "AF-P" lenses, these Pulse motors are essentially stepping motors and the new Pentax 16-50mm f/2.8 PLM lens should offer smoother, faster and quieter AF performance compared to earlier SDM lenses. Further, the optical layout is designed in such a way as to have a smaller and lighter focusing group, which further enhances the speed and precision of the lens's AF system. Overall, the pulse motor design, much like other STM or stepper-motor-based lenses, allows for fast and quiet AF operation, making this new Pentax lens a great option for both stills and video.

PulseAudio via GUI: Pavucontrol(Note: this is not an alphabet post. You may have noticed I'ma little stuck on I. I hope to get un-stuck soon; but first, hereare a pair of articles on configuring audio on Linux.)I'm a very late adopter for PulseAudio. In the past, on my minimalDebian machines,nearlyany sound problem could be made better by apt-get remove pulseaudio.But pulse seems like it's working better since those days,and a lot of applications (like Firefox) require it, so it'stime to learn how to use it. Especially in these daysof COVID-19 and video conferencing, when I'll need to be using themicrophone and speakers a lot more. (I'd never actually had a reasonto use the microphone on my last laptop.)Beginner tutorials always start with something like "Go into SystemPreferences and click on Audio", leaving out anyone who doesn't usethe standard desktop. The standard GUI PulseAudio controller ispavucontrol. It has four tabs.Start with the rightmost Configuration tab, which lists yoursound cards. In my case, I have the sound card that's built in tomy laptop (Cannon Point is one of Intel's place-name codes,after a nature preserve in Georgia). I also have "USB PnP AudioDevice", because the USB-C hub I use as a docking station has a soundcard built into it.When I first booted Ubuntu, I had no sound.It turned out that PulseAudio saw that I had a USB sound card plugged inand assumed that I wanted to use it. That seems reasonable, but it'swrong; I didn't own any speakers that I could plug into thatsound card, and the only reason it's plugged in is that it's partof the hub. So the trick was to set Profile for the USB cardto Off so Pulse would use the built-in sound.(I also had to do someextrafiddling to get the volume up to audible levels; pavucontrol'svolume control sliders weren't enough.)But gradually my sound setup grew more complicated. My built-in micwasn't supported by older kernels, so for a while I used the littleearbud headset that came with my phone, which worked surprisingly wellfor video conferencing. Eventually I ordered a USB microphone.Meanwhile, I got jealous of the nice speakers Dave has attached to hiscomputer, and decided to buy some powered desktop speakers and plugthem into the USB-C hub. And now, with the release of Ubuntu 20.04,the built-in microphone finally works too, so I have three possible micsif you count the headset. And don't forget HDMI, in case I plug in toa TV or a conference-room sound system.That gives me a lot of possible combinations:Card Output InputInternal built-in speakers plug-in headphones HDMI built-in mic plug-in headset micUSB-C hub powered speakersplug-in headphones plug-in headset micUSB mic monitor earphone port USB micNow the pavucontrol profiles in the Configuration tab are gettingmore complicated. Here are the profiles for the USB sound card:But that's just the beginning.When I first tried theexternal speakers on Ubuntu 20.04, I didn't hear anything.When I went to the Output Devicestab, now there were five options (image at right),because the new driver for the Cannon Point sound card can outputsound over HDMI as well as using the internal speakers.And it seems to have three of those HDMI options, even though I onlyhave one HDMI monitor connected.And if you have an HDMI monitor connected, it assumes that monitor musthave sound (not a good assumption) and prefers HDMI to theinternal speakers.One thing that helps is fallbacks. Note the button at the lower rightthat's circled in red. I'll come back to that soon.Anyway, You can try muting all the output devices except for the speakersyou want. But that isn't always enough, because of the fourth tab,Playback.Initially, Playback only shows one entry, System Sounds.But when you run a program that plays sound, another entry will appear.It may show the name of the program you're running, or it may benamed for the library that's producing the sound (for instance, mypygame-based music player program shows up aspython: Simple directMedia Layer on).You can increase the chances that most programs will use aparticular device by marking that device as a fallback.In the Output Devicestab (everything I'm saying about Output Devices goes for InputDevices too), the rightmost button next to each device, a greencheckbox, says Set as fallback if you hover over it: see thebutton that's circled red in the earlier screenshot.Some programs will ignore the fallback, though, especially if you'verun them before.PulseAudio keeps a record somewhere of what deviceeach app used the last time it was run, and will use that if it can.I haven't found any way of getting Pulse to display this mapping ofapps to devices.There's no visual indication to which device, if any, is the current fallback.(The next article will give a command-line way to tell.)Pavucontrol works okay once you figure out the tricks.But changing inputs and outputs can be fiddly and requiresa fair amount of clicking around. I hate doing that for things Ido often: for instance, to switch to the external speakers so I canplay music; or send output to HDMI because I'm giving a publicpresentation (assuming we eventally get past social distancingand have public meetings again); or, most important, turn offmy microphone when I'm not using it.So I wanted a quick, deterministic way of switching from the command line.I'll cover that in the next article.Update: I ended up making it a separate page on mywebsite, because I suspect I'll be tweaking it for quite a while.Controlling PulseAudio from the Command Line. 041b061a72


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